There are certain parts of the brain which are especially important in relation to not only the formation, but also the retention of memories, and these are as shown below.
Hippocampus – This is found deep in the human brain, and plays the largest role in the brain processing information as memory.
Amygdala – This is an almond shaped piece of the brain which is found close to the hippocampus and processes a person’s emotions. This particular area helps to imprint memories into the brain which involve emotions.
Cerebral Cortex – This is the outer layer of the human brain, and is where most long term memory is stored in various different sectors. It will all depend on where particular memories are stored, as to what process the information involves. So language will be stored in one sector, sensory input into another, problem solving into yet another sector and so on.
Memory also involves communication occurring between the brains various network of neurons and cells (millions of which are activated by chemicals in the brain known as neurotransmitters).